23 de mayo de 2024

Parasitic Triungulin Larvae Hosts

Combing through Anthophila observations to find cases of Meloidae or Ripiphoridae triungulin phoresy; this journal is for recording and organizing the new triungulin-on-bee observations I personally find. Below text from my
triungulin larvae project page (project criteria: [Family = Meloidae | Ripiphoridae] ∩ Life stage = larva).

Compiling confirmed and suspected observations of parasitic triungulin larva. Triungulin are first instar planidial larvae of hypermetamorphic Coleoptera families Meloidae (blister beetles) and Ripiphoridae (wedge-shaped beetles).

These mobile larvae typically position themselves on flowers (and/or mimic female pheromones, as seen in the Meloid genus Meloe), so that they may grab the hairs of pollinators visiting the plant (commonly phoretic on adult bees, wasps, butterflies) and ride back to the host's nest; the triungulin does not harm the initial first adult host (unless too many triungulin attach and prevent host mobility), as this first relationship is purely a commensal act of phoresy to gain access to the host's nest. After entering the host's nest, the parasitic triungulin molts into a less mobile grub-like second instar, and parasitically feeds on the developing host pupa. The parasitic larva typically continues to develop, pupates to adulthood, and leaves the host's nest to repeat this cycle.

The term "triungulin" (plural: "triungula") typically refers to the aforementioned families of Meloidae since they typically have 3 claws on each foot ("tri" = three, "ungula" = claw), though it has been used for larvae of other beetle families and Strepsiptera with similar life histories. Triungulin are a type of planidium; the more general non-taxon specific term "planidium" (plural: "planidia") refers to the unique parasitic & phoretic first-instar larvae of certain groups within the orders Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Strepsiptera, and Diptera.

Observation links listed as unique observation ID to save space.

Neotropical:

Xylocopa augusti
198250431 (triungulin: Meloidae 217600975)
67439177 (triungulin: Meloidae 221362883)

Xylocopa atamisquensis
101142018 (triungulin: Meloidae: Cissites maculata 217613059)

Xylocopa frontalis
90281159
107728083

Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) ssp.
157203045
108422231
153137525

Oriental:

Xylocopa latipes
209881270 (triungulin: Meloidae: likely Nemognatha plazata)

Xylocopa perforator
178598537
177383307
177383031
140676481
41449902
71124506 (potential triungulin)

Xylocopa tenuiscapa
95142164

Palearctic:

Andrena bicolor
204567818 (triungulin: Meloidae: Meloe violaceus 219500078)

Colletes hederae
200102049 (triungulin: Meloidae 217832982)
160879398 (triungulin: Meloidae 217831212)
201959650
198097193
150204598
137048822
132612037

Chrysis germari (NON-ANTHOPHILA: Chrysididae)
48288859

Publicado el 23 de mayo de 2024 por zaonen zaonen | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

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